Healthy Work Strategies

Healthy Work Strategies include workplace policies, programs, contract language, regulations and laws designed to reduce sources of stress at work (work stressors), and to make work and workers healthier. Each report below is a summary about how to improve the organization of work to reduce work stressors, such as:

Long work hours, bullying, sexual harassment, discrimination, threats of violence, understaffing, job insecurity, lack of supervisor or coworker support, work-family conflict, job demands, lack of job control, job strain, and “effort-reward imbalance.”

The types of Healthy Work Strategies below include:

Workplace research studies and programs to reduce work stressors

The research studies and programs, published in scientific journals, were selected because they were designed to reduce sources of stress at different workplaces in order to improve employee health (health promotion programs intended to change individual behaviors are not included). Many include a participatory “action” research focus, which means they involved workers, labor and management in a process that was intended to create positive change. These studies document the effects of workplace programs and policies and provide important details about the process of changing working conditions—so that you can see if such a process might work in your workplace or industry.

Health Care

Reducing work stress and improving the mental health of hospital workers (Quebec, Canada)


Job redesign at a sweets manufacturing company in England

Public Sector Workers

Changing workplace policies and procedures reduced blood pressure among Quebec, Canada white-collar workers

Increasing job control and reducing other job stressors among call center workers in England

Redesigning the jobs of postal workers in Uppsala, Sweden

Supervisor Support and Work-life balance

Improving employee safety, health, and well-being through improved team communication and work-family balance

Reducing work-family conflict through supervisor training on Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB)


Workplace policies and programs to reduce job stress among K-12 education staff (U.S.)

Transit Workers – bus drivers

Action research intervention with urban bus drivers in Copenhagen, Denmark

Bathroom access for bus drivers in the US and Canada

Intervention to reduce job stress among urban bus drivers in Stockholm, Sweden

Preventing threats and violence against bus drivers

Programs and policies to reduce work stress among bus drivers in the United States and Canada

Workplace bullying/discrimination/violence

A training program for workers and managers on reducing male bullying and workplace violence (U.S.)

Labor-Management Contracts

The reports below are examples of labor-management contracts that include specific provisions intended to improve working conditions and that may make work healthier as well. Many of these collective bargaining efforts were not intended to improve workers’ health and have not been scientifically studied to determine their effectiveness, however they are legally binding and enforceable.

Collective bargaining agreements (contracts) designed to improve working conditions and job security for Brown University dining services workers

Collective bargaining agreement (contract) designed to improve working conditions and reduce stressors for Rutgers University faculty, graduate and teaching assistants

Contract Language to Reduce Job Stress in Education & Healthcare (Summary)

First collective bargaining agreement for airport workers and security officers at New York and New Jersey airports

Jim Beam workers achieve better work-life balance through new labor-management contract

New contract for Los Angeles teachers includes important features designed to reduce teachers’ job stress

New York State Nurses Association (NYSNA) contract with private hospitals in New York City focuses on improving safe nurse staffing levels

Reducing workplace bullying through a union-sponsored Respectful Workplace Policy and collective bargaining

SAG-AFTRA creates code of conduct to prevent sexual harassment in the workplace

Trade union actions to prevent psychosocial risks in healthcare (E.U.)

Work-life balance and trade unions

Reducing COVID-19-related work stressors

The following case studies summarize some of the efforts by different groups and organizations to reduce COVID-related work stressors. We will be continuously updating this section.

  1. Introduction
  2. Collective bargaining
  3. Laws and regulations
  4. Workers’ compensation
  5. Community organizations’ advocacy efforts
  6. Substance use

For further COVID-19 worker resources, visit UCLA’s Labor Occupational Health & Safety Program page on this topic.

If you have any questions or comments about these reports, or have updates or new programs, policies, or laws that you would like us to include, please feel free to contact us.


We would like to thank and acknowledge the many people who wrote and reviewed these case studies, not the least of which Paul Landsbergis, PhD, MPH, Principal Investigator for the Healthy Work Toolkit, who supervised the development, review and completion of each case study, in addition to researching and writing a number of them.

This project was made possible, in large part, by the dedication of Dr. Landsbergis’ SUNY Downstate School of Public Health graduate students, who researched and drafted many of the case studies, and whose time was funded by a grant from the Center for Social Epidemiology. We greatly appreciate and acknowledge:

  • Jeanine Botta
  • Daphne Brown
  • Rivka Franklin
  • Yocheved Halberstam
  • Christopher Jimenez
  • Marie-Anne Rosemberg
  • Elina Shtridler

Additionally, for their review and helpful comments, we warmly thank and acknowledge:

  • Alex Bryson
  • Bill Borwegen
  • Mark Catlin
  • Ellen Cobb
  • Marnie Dobson
  • Mahée Gilbert-Ouimet
  • Leslie Hammer
  • David Holman
  • Katherine Lippel
  • Jane Lipscomb
  • Minnesota Association of Public Employees
  • New York State Nursing Association
  • Jonathan Rosen
  • Glenn Shor
  • Jan Thomason
  • Xavier Trudel
  • Kurt Wahlstedt
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